Who need Egg Donation?
Due to life style and late marriage now women after 35 have less chncs and have poor overian responce and they some time do not have capacity to carry the pregnance. Women who are more than 37-40 years of age then resort to treatment of infertility by their gynecologist. If they still do not become pregnant they take help of newer technologies like IVF - In Vitro Fertilization (test-tube baby) or ICSI - Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection.
Women after the age of 40 tend to have fewer eggs in their ovaries or the quality of the eggs they produce may be poor. Thus, even new technologies like IVF and ICSI may not ensure a successful pregnancy.
In India, preference is given to younger couples to adopt children. Couples over the age of 45 can adopt, but find it difficult to do so, because of Governmental preference for younger parents. Such couples can tremendously benefit by egg donation. Women who have had multiple cycles of test-tube baby (IVF or ICSI) and have still failed to conceive and become pregnant.
Besides elderly or menopausal women, egg donation can be done in younger women whose ovaries have prematurely failed or in young women who have undergone radiation or chemotherapy for cancer. Radiation or chemotherapy destroys the eggs and hence these women have a failure of their ovaries. Egg donation is also used in patients who are carrying major chromosomal defects so that they do not pass the genetic defect to their children. Patients suffering from severe Tuberculosis and severe Endometriosis may also produce poor quality eggs and hence can be treated by egg donation.
Fear of baby may not look like parents
Normally donor are screened on the basis of recipient physical lookout. Eggs are borrowed from healthy women less than 30-35 years of age and who are not suffering from any illness or genetic disorders. These young women, also called donors, are specially screened for AIDS and Hepatitis.
How is the procedure done?
During egg donation, the donor is given injections to produce many eggs. When these eggs are ripe, she is given a short anesthesia and the eggs are removed from inside the vagina without giving a cut on the abdomen. The donor can return home three to four hours' after the procedure. The eggs are then fertilized with the recipient's husband's sperms in the laboratory, either by IVF or ICSI and kept in the incubator for two days.
Incase the recipient's husband's sperm is of poor quality; the eggs can be fertilized by the technique of Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). Two days later, a four-celled embryo is formed. Three days later, a eight-celled embryo is formed or five days later a multi-celled Blastocyst is formed. This embryo (small baby) is then transferred back to the womb either at the four cell, eight cell or the Blastocyst stage.
50% to 60% of such women will become pregnant. Incase they fail to become pregnant they can have a repeat egg donation cycle. Many women undergo two to four cycles and achieve their goal of a child.